11th June 2020



DATE: 4th June 2020.

CLASS: Grade 5.

Subject: Basic Science.

Topic  1:  Physical Fitness and Body Conditioning.

Topic 2 :   Groups of Vertebrate

References: Melrose Physical and Health Education Book 6.

Brief explanation: it is important for a person to be physically fit. This means that the person is healthy, strong and well-built enough to participate in physical exercise without much difficulty. Physically fit people will also be able to do their work better. Exercise helps to keep the body in good state of health. During exercise, the joints are made to work, excess fat is burnt off and some dangerous waste products are removed from the body.


Physical fitness is defined as the ability to carry out daily activities without getting tired easily. It can also be described as the ability to carry out daily tasks without undue fatigue. Body conditioning is a process of preparing the body to meet the challenges of physical activities some popular fitness exercise are listed below:

  1. push clips
  2. squats
  3. bent knee
  4. sit-ups
  5. sit and reach
  6. jogging
  7. press-up
  8. running
  9. waist rotation
  10. weight lifting


Components of Physical Fitness and Body Conditioning: These are listed below from 1 to 4.

  1. Agility: This is the ability to move in different directions quickly. It enables the person to quickly change position and direction in a precise manner.
  2. Power: Power is the ability to do forceful and muscular activities at a fast speed. It is the ability of an athlete or individual to maximally put to use, stored energy when it is required during physical activities.
  3. Balance: This is the ability of an individual to make a steady posture while standing or moving. It is the ability to maintain a particular body position.
  4. Flexibility: This is the full range of movements which occurs at the joint while the chance of sustaining an injury is reduced.


Below are some benefits derived from agility, balance , flexibility and power:

  1. It promotes the ability to move with ease.
  2. It improves stamina.
  3. It prevents problems of posture.
  4. It reduces the chances of injury.
  5. It prevents minor and major illnesses.
  6. It promotes quick reaction in times of emergency.
  7. It makes people to enjoy taking part in sports.




Topic 2 :   The Animal Kingdom – Groups of Vertebrate

Brief Explanation:

Animals are living things that are not plants. Animals are divided into two groups or classes. These are VERTEBRATE (Animals with backbone) and INVERTEBRATE (Animals without backbone).

Notes for the Pupils


There are five classes of vertebrates as listed below:

  1. Mammals
  2. Reptiles
  3. Aves
  4. Amphibians
  5. Pisces


Mammals are the most developed animals. Man is also a type of mammal called PRIMATE. Other primates are apes (tail monkeys like Gorillas, chimpanzees, orang-utans and gibbons and monkeys). Whales and dolphins are mammals and not fish. Bats are flying mammals. Other kinds of mammals are goats, sheep, rats, squirrels, dogs etc.



  1. Mammals give birth to their young ones alive.
  2. They feed their babies with breast milk.
  3. They are warm blooded
  4. Their bodies are covered with hairs.
  5. They have external ears called pinnae (singular is pinnae)


Reptiles are believed to be the first animals to live entirely on land. They are coldblooded. Their skin is covered with dry horny scales. They do not have external ears but the inner and middle ears. Examples of reptiles are:


  1. Turtles (stay permanently in water)
  2. Lizards (agama, gecko etc.)
  3. crocodiles
  4. alligators
  5. snakes(boa, cobra, python, rattle snake etc.)
  6. tortoises

All reptiles lay egg on land.



Amphibians: These are animals that live both in water and on land. They lay eggs in water. They breathe by means of gills, lungs and skin. They are coldblooded. They have a pairs of fore limbs (front legs) and hind limbs (back legs) examples are toads, frogs, newts and salamanders etc.

Aves: Aves are birds. There are two kinds of birds. The flying and flightless birds. An ostrich is an examples of a flightless bird. All birds lay eggs. They are warm blooded. Most part of their bodies are covered with feathers. Example of birds are: doves, eagles, vultures, hawks etc. alpine gliders can fly continuously for long periods.

Pisces: Fishes are also called Pisces. They live permanently in water and breathe by means of gills. They lay eggs and move by means of fins. Fishes are divided into two kinds namely: cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes.

Cartilaginous fishes (fishes with bones made up of cartilage) or bones that are brittle. These fishes swim continuously because they will sink if they stop swimming due to the absence of swim bladder in them. They are the wildest among fishes and are largely carnivores.

Bonny fishes: These are fishes with hard bones. They are the largest group of fishes. They can hang or suspend themselves in water at any depth without swimming because of the presence of swim balder in them. Examples are: tilapia, barracuda, mackerel, sardine etc.



  1. Which bird can fly continuously in the air for about two hundred days?
  2. The flying mammal is the ______________________
  3. The largest of all mammals of earth is _______________
  4. Fishes are also called ______________________
  5. Write two characteristics of each of the following
  • Birds
  • Amphibians
  • Pisces
  • mammals
  • Reptiles
  1. Name the kinds of snakes you know

7. How many month is the gestation period of and elephant?