19th August 2020





DATE: 26th June, 2020

SUBJECT: Physical and Health Education

TOPIC: Wrestling


Brief explanation

Most people in the olden days were very cruel, rude and warlike. They were easily provoked and acted immediately without considering the effect of their aggressive actions against others. This behaviour was so visible in Sparta a Greek city-state. The Spartans believed that every man is a soldier, and so training in martial arts and military activities became their priority.

Martial art is a show of strength and physical skills which is meant to overpower any opponent in a combat. Martial arts are adopted by individuals to display their physical skills, ability, agility, strength, endurance as against their opponents. They can be used against one’s opponent in order to force him to surrender. The following are some of the examples of martial arts:

  1. Wrestling
  2. Judo
  3. Boxing
  4. Karate
  5. Kung Fu
  6. Taekwondo
  7. Fencing
  8. Gladiator combat
  9. Tug of war
  10. Unarmed combat

Note for the Students

Wresting means a show of strength over an opponent, it is conducted by throwing the opponent on the ground or by forcing him to surrender. Wrestling has been part of our culture in Nigeria, it came with western education, as such, Nigerians have been involved in wrestling activities in an attempt to survive in self-defence and in local competitions within communities. The Hausa’s call it “Kokukla”, the Igbo call it “Ngba”, the Yorubas call it “Ijakadu or Gidigbo”.

Africans have always been wrestling especially during their traditional ceremonies. This is part of recreation, local competitions either “to win a title or marry a wife”, and celebration of festivals. However, there are two types of wresting.

The traditional wrestling and the modern wrestling.

Skills and Techniques of Modern Wrestling

  1. The grip
  2. The lifting
  3. The heave
  4. The open stance
  5. The under arm sweep
  6. The flying mare attack
  7. Diving to catch the leg
  8. The arms lock
  9. Offensive positioning
  10. Defensive positioning

Attacking skills

  1. The underarm sweep.
  2. The diving attack
  3. The fireman’s lift
  4. Counter attack and defensive skills
  5. The escapes

Underarm sweep

  1. Move to the opponent with your hand in a ready position.
  2. Grab the opponent from the neck and arm through to his under arm.
  3. Shift the grip down to the side of the back.
  4. Press the opponent forcefully backward with his chest.
  5. Capture his leg with force and bring him down.

Diving attack

  1. Stand properly in a ready position.
  2. Move swiftly towards your opponent and catch his legs.
  3. Lift the leg and draw him towards you.
  4. Throw him down with force.

The fireman’s lift

  1. Stand face to face with your opponent.
  2. Place your hands in a ready position.
  3. Move quickly and suddenly grab your opponent’s leg at the thigh.
  4. Lift him off the ground suddenly.
  5. Throw him down and press his back down.

Counter-attacks and defensive skills

  1. Hold the neck of your opponent.
  2. Stretch your leg forcefully if he is already holding it.
  3. Free yourself from his grip.
  4. Grab his leg and lift it.
  5. Use your other leg’s thigh to trip his other leg.
  6. Throw him down with force.

The escapes

  1. Stretch your legs forcefully to the back.
  2. Use your elbow to block your opponent.
  3. Put your hands inside your opponent’s armpit.
  4. Use your arms to remove his grip from your body.
  5. Push him backwards with force and free yourself.
  6. Maintain your body balance.

Basic Rules of Wrestling

  1. An opponent is defeated if he surrenders.
  2. No aid of any kind is allowed.
  3. Weapons should not be used against an opponent.
  4. When an opponent is given a pitfall, he is defeated after the count of three.
  5. It is wrong to kick an opponent below the belt.
  6. An opponent is defeated if he is carried from the ground.
  7. Wrestling ends immediately an opponent surrenders.

Differences between modern wrestling and traditional wrestling

Modern wrestling Traditional wrestling
1 It is part of sports It is part of tradition
2 It encourages female


It does not allow female


3 It is divided into amateurs

and professionals

It has no divisions
4 It requires a lot of coaching and


It is acquired
5 The wrestlers wear sports parts

And special foot wears.

The wrestlers wear only

shorts, objects believed to be charms are tied to their arms and waist.

Importance of Wrestling

  1. It helps to build up the muscles of the chest, arms and body.
  2. It helps to build stability and balance.
  3. It is a good way of exercising the body.
  4. It helps to develop self-confidence.
  5. It helps to acquire self-defense skills.
  6. It provides a means of livelihood especially in professional wrestling.


  1. Briefly relates the general history of wrestling.
  2. List four skills in wrestling.
  3. State the benefits of wrestling.