WEEK/TERM: THIRD TERM/WEEK 1
CLASS: J.S.S 2
SUBJECT: PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION
TOPIC: SAFETY IN RELATION TO SPORTS: SPORTS INJURIES
Definition of sports injuries: – Sports injuries are the injuries that occur during participation in sports and games due to accidents.
Common sports injuries
Accidents during sports can lead to injuries such as:
vii. Muscles cramp
Description of common sports injuries
1. Wound:- A wound is a cut on the skin that allows the escape of blood.
Types of wounds
There are about six types of wounds, they include:
a. Bruises or contusion.
b. Abrasion or matburn.
c. Incised wound.
d. Lacerated wound.
e. Punctured wound.
f. Avulsion wound.
2. Sprain: – A sprain occurs as a result of over stretching or over twisting of the ligament of a joint. Common sites of sprain are knee joint, elbow joint, ankle joint and wrist joint.
Signs and symptoms of sprain are listed below:
a. Mild pain.
e. Severe pain when touched.
a. Rest the affected joint.
b. Cold compress dressing.
c. Immobilize the joint (don’t move).
d. Seek medical attention.
3. Strain:– A strain is an injury to the muscle. It occurs in the muscle when a group of muscles is over stretched, the fibres may tear thereby causing an internal bleeding.
Causes of strain:
a. Lifting of heavy weight.
b. Forceful stretching of the muscle.
c. Lack of adequate warm-up before activity.
Signs and symptoms of strain include:
a. Sharp pain.
b. Muscle tenderness.
c. Swelling of muscle.
i. Position the victim comfortably.
ii. Apply a cold compress.
iii. Bandage the affected part.
iv. Seek medical attention.
Differences between a sprain and a strain
i.) Sprain occurs in the joint while strain occurs in the muscle.
ii.) In sprain, the ligament is either overstretched or torn while in strain, the muscle fibres are either overstretched or torn.
4. Dislocation: – Dislocation is the displacement of one or more bone ends at a joint as a result of injury to the joint. Common sites of dislocation are elbow, shoulder, ankle, hip, wrist, toe, and finger joints
Signs and symptoms of dislocation.
c. Dislocation (change in skin colour).
e. High temperature at the area.
f. Bone displacement.
i. Bandage the affected joint.
ii. Rub with cold compress.
iii. Never attempt to put back the bones.
iv. Seek medical attention.
Factors that can cause injuries during sports
c. Poor lighting / poor visibility in activity area.
d. Lack of skills/ lack of knowledge.
e. Unsafe physical environment/hazard.
f. Faulty equipment.
g. Lack of instruction / negligence.
Exercise / Assignment
1. What are sports injuries?
2. Describe strain.
3. List 5 common sports injuries.
4. State 4 factors that causes sports injuries.
5. What is the difference between sprain and strain?
6. List 5 common sites of dislocation.