WEEK/TERM: THIRD TERM/WEEK 2
CLASS: J.S.S 2
SUBJECT: PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION
TOPIC: SPORTS INJURIES: BLEEDING OR HAEMORRHAGE
Definition of bleeding or haemorrhage
Bleeding is the escape of blood from the blood vessels. It may be internal, external or both. If external, blood is seen on the skin, if internal, there is swelling around the area.
Causes of bleeding or haemorrhage
- Direct injury or cutting of the blood vessel.
- Infection of the blood vessels.
- Blood disease.
- High blood pressure.
Types of bleeding or haemorrhage
There are three types of bleeding, namely:
- Arterial bleeding: – Arterial bleeding is a type of bleeding which occurs as a result of a cut or rupture of an artery. It is the most serious form of bleeding because blood comes out with the rhythm of the heartbeat. The blood is pure red.
- Venous bleeding:- This occurs as a result of a cut or rupture of the vein. Another name for venous bleeding is varicose bleeding. The blood is pale because it lacks oxygen.
- Capillary bleeding:- This occurs as a result of a cut of the capillaries. It is the least serious of all forms of bleeding. The blood oozes out and it can be easily controlled.
Means of arresting bleeding
Bleeding can be stopped in four ways, namely:
- Formation of clot: – The clot forms as seal to bleeding. It is the body’s natural defence mechanism.
- Direct pressure: – It is a way by which a sterile dressing and bandage are pressed directly over the wound. This applies mostly in minor cuts to hasten the clotting of the blood.
- Indirect pressure: – This is used in cases of big cuts. By direct pressure, the artery supplying blood to the injured part is constricted (made narrow) by pressure. It is indirect because the pressure is not over the wound but over an artery near the site of the injury.
- Use of the tourniquet:- This involves the twisting of a piece of cloth or bandage round the limb by the aid of a piece of stick in order to arrest bleeding. It is used as a last resort because it is dangerous.
Guideline for the use of tourniquet
- It should be tight enough to constrict (make narrow) the artery or vein.
- The area must be padded to avoid bruising the skin.
- It should be relaxed every two minutes until bleeding stops.
Dangers of tourniquet
- It may not be tight enough.
- Damage may be done to the nerves and muscles.
- Pain is increased.
- It may result in shock.
- State 3 differences between arterial and venous bleeding.
- Identify 3 dangers of tourniquet.
- State 3 causes of bleeding
- List out 4 means of arresting bleeding.
- List out the 3 types of bleeding.