19th August 2020





DATE: 26th June, 2020

SUBJECT: Physical and Health Education

TOPIC: Pollution


Brief explanation

Notes for the Students

Pollution is defined as the discharge of harmful or toxic substances into the environment. Pollutants can be natural volcanic ash, they can be created by human activities example trash and runoff produced by factories. Pollutants reduce the quality of air, water and land.

Types of Pollution are air pollution, water pollution, land pollution and noise pollution.

Air Pollution

Air is the mixture of gases in the atmosphere, air pollution occurs mostly as the result of human activities.

Sources of air pollution: Sources of air pollution include; engines, and generators from industries, earthquakes, bush burning, smoke from cigarettes, bomb explosions and tear gas resulting from war actions.

Effects of air pollution: Air pollution causes respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis, increase in the speed of communicable disease and blindness.

Control of Air Pollution:

  1. Enforce laws through fines and closure of industries.
  2. Replacing automobile engines with solar energy engines.
  3. Reducing sulphur content in fuel.

Water pollution

Water can be polluted directly when it is surface water or indirectly when the pollutants sink into the ground to pollute underground water.

Source of water pollution.

  1. Sewage
  2. Fertilizer
  3. Industrial waste
  4. Refuse
  5. Fuel

Effects of water pollution

  1. Dysentery
  2. Typhoid fever
  3. Cholera
  4. Skin problems

Control of water pollution

  1. Protecting the source of water.
  2. Boiling and filtration
  3. Treating with chemicals

Land pollution

Land pollution is the introduction of contaminated substance which are injurious to humans, animals and plants, on the land. It reduces the soil quality.

Sources of land pollution

  1. Oil spillage
  2. Pesticides and insecticides
  3. Industrial waste
  4. Refuse


This is an unwanted sound that can be created through mechanical, electrical or other man made devices and transmitted through the air.

Sources of noise pollution

  1. Land conversion
  2. Engines e.g. train and aircraft
  3. Sea waves
  4. Rustling leaves
  5. War sound
  6. Thunder
  7. Record sellers and mobile drug sellers.

Effect of noise pollution

  1. It can interfere with sleep.
  2. It can cause deafness.
  3. It can cause mental disorder.

Control of noise pollution

  1. Eliminate the source of noise if possible.
  2. Use ear protectors where necessary.
  3. Making offenders pay fines.
  4. Setting noise standard to standard to individuals before they are allowed to operate.


  1. List three sources of air, water, land and noise pollution.