19th August 2020





DATE: 20th July, 2020

SUBJECT: Physical and Health Education

TOPIC: Personal, School and Community Health


Brief explanation

Note for the Students

Health can be defined as a person’s state of mental or physical well-being. Personal health involves the study of nutrition, rest and sleep, valuable habit formation, infection and immunity, safety and first aid, hygiene of organs of the body, clothing and dental care. Personal health is the practice of good behaviour needed for the promotion and preservation of health. It also involves taking good care of oneself.

School Health

School health refers to those practices which ensure good health of a school. Example, there should be water to handle personal hygiene, the water should be safe for drinking. The students and staff should be taught how to stay healthy.

Community Health

Is an organised cooperative effort of all agencies in the community directed towards the promotion of physical, mental, social and emotional health of community residents.

Factors Which Determine Health

The life of an individual is affected throughout life often by the factors listed below from 1 to 7.

  1. Heredity:

This means the inborn factors which are transmitted from parent to children. The genetic factors play an important role in determining an individual’s health status.



  1. Environment

This refers to the external influences that affect an individual from conception to death. This includes food, climate, plants and animals, cultural values, customs, beliefs which all affect health.

  1. Life style

This refers to all behaviour patterns and health practices displayed when eating, using the toilet, drinking and smoking that affect health.

  1. Education

Through adequate exposure to facts and information, an individual will be able to promote and maintain his health.

  1. Living condition

Overcrowding and ventilation are important factors. Contagious diseases can easily be transmitted in over-crowded living condition.

  1. Nutrition

A person that eats a balanced diet with vitamins and mineral salts in abundance will maintain good health better than one who eats/feeds on carbohydrates only. Eating adequate fruits is good.


  1. Industrialization

Waste, noise, air and water pollution have made the environment unsafe for human beings. People who live around factories may inhale dangerous substances.



  1. List six determinants of health.
  2. Identify three life styles that lead to poor health.
  3. Give four characteristics of a healthy person.