11th August 2020




DATE: 12th July, 2020


SUBJECT: Grammar

TOPIC: Phrases

Reference: New Concept English for Junior Secondary Schools. Book 2.

Brief explanation

Notes for the Students

A phrase is a group of words that function as a unit in a sentence, it does not contain a subject and a predicate, and hence, cannot convey a complete thought.

Some examples of phrases are:

  1. On a table
  2. Under the tree
  3. At the door
  4. On the roof. Etc.

It is important to note that the afore mentioned group of words does not contain a subject or a finite verb. There are five kinds of phrases in English and they are:

  1. Noun phrase
  2. Verb phrase
  3. Prepositional phrase
  4. Adjectival phrase
  5. Adverbial phrase

You need to learn all the types of phrases.

Noun phrase

A noun phrase generally has a noun or pronoun as its main word or headword.


A beautiful girl

The old house

Verb phrase

A verb phrase generally has a verb as its main headword.


Is cooking

Will travel

Prepositional phrase

A prepositional phrase has a preposition as its first word.


in the bucket

at the bus-stop

Adjectival phrase

An adjectival phrase has an adjective as the main word.


Very cold

Extremely hot

Adverbial phrase

An adverbial phrase has an adverb as its headword.


Very far

Quite recently

Note: The headword is the main word to which other words can be added, either before or after.


Identify which type of phrase is underlined in the following sentences

  1. All the good students in my class were given double promotion.
  2. The students arrived at the party much later.
  3. The book is too complex for a junior class.
  4. The girl promised to visit her friends in the night.
  5. My friends might have eaten lunch.
  6. We enjoyed the fine warm weather.

Day 2

Collective Noun

A collective noun is the word used to represent a group of people, animals or things. It is a noun that refers to a collection of people, animals or things taken as a whole.

Some examples of collective nouns are:

  1. flock
  2. crowd
  3. committee
  4. choir
  5. group
  6. team
  7. herd
  8. gang
  9. fleet
  10. band
  11. board
  12. class
  13. bunch
  14. troupe
  15. hive
  16. wad
  17. pair
  18. galaxy

Common collective nouns used for people

  1. A band of musicians
  2. A board of directors
  3. A choir of singers
  4. A class of students
  5. A crowd of people
  6. A gang of thieves
  7. A panel of experts
  8. A team of players
  9. A troupe dancers

Some common collective nouns used for animals

  1. An army of ants
  2. A flock of birds
  3. A flock of sheep
  4. A herd of deer
  5. A hive of bees
  6. A litter of puppies
  7. A murder of cows
  8. A school of fish
  9. A pride of lion
  10. A swam of locust

Common collective nouns used for things

  1. A bouquet of flowers
  2. A bunch of flowers
  3. A fleet of ships
  4. A forest of trees
  5. A galaxy of stars
  6. A pair of shoes
  7. A range of mountains
  8. A wad of notes
  9. A pack of cards


What is the collective noun for the following?

  1. Guns
  2. Clergy
  3. Men
  4. Monkeys
  5. Ladies