24th July 2020




DATE: 4th July, 2020

CLASS: Grade 3

SUBJECT: Pre-vocational Studies

TOPIC: Materials for Growing Crops, Pre and post planting .

REFERENCE: Lantern Comprehensive Pre-vocational Studies Book 4; & Lantern Comprehensive Agricultural Science JSS 1.


farmers carry out many activities in growing crops. These activities can be put into two broad groups.

Notes for the Pupils

Materials Needed for Growing Crops

The following are needed for growing crops

  1. Good seeds
  2. Good stem cuttings
  3. Fertilizer or manure
  4. Weed and pest killing chemicals

Good seeds

Use seeds that have the following:

  1. The seeds should be healthy.
  2. There must not be infected by disease.
  3. The seeds should be fresh.
  4. The seeds should not have holes or damage on them.

Types of seeds

  1. Maize seeds
  2. Melon seeds
  3. Beans seeds

Good Stem Cutting

Some plants or tree crops stem can be planted like cassava. Before planting a stem ensure the following are in place:

  1. The cutting must not be infected by diseases.
  2. The stem must be clean.
  3. The stem must be healthy.

Fertilizer or Manure

They gives the soil nutrient and it is passed to the plants for effective growth.

Types of Fertilizers

  1. Inorganic or Synthetic fertilizer.
  2. Organic fertilizer or manure.

pest or Weed Killing Chemicals

chemical such as gram ozone, prim extra and atrizine can be used to kill weeds by spraying it on the weed to kill the weed or spraying on ground for the weed not to germinate.

Insecticide are sprayed on plants to kill insects, baits are used for rodent or rodenticide chemicals and scare crow for birds.

Procedures for Growing Crops

Farmers carry out many activities in growing crops. These activities can be put into two broad groups. They are

  1. Pre-planting activities.
  2. Post-planting activities

Pre-planting activities

Before crops are planted on a piece of land or a farm, some activities are carried out to prepare the land for farming, for example:

(a) land clearing and stumping.

Clearing: clearing is the first step in farmland preparation. It involves the removal of all plants growing on a piece of land that is to be used for farming.

Stumping: stumping means removing the roots of cut trees that are still inside the soil after the land has been cleared.

(b) preparing nursery beds

A nursery is a place where seeds or plant cuttings are planted until they grow enough to be transplanted onto the farmland.

(c) Sowing

Sowing is another word for planting. It simply means putting seeds or other plant cuttings into the soil where they receive the nourishment needed to grow into full crops.

(d) Planting Locally Grown Crops in Ridges

Ridges is the heaping of top soil into rows. Seeds or other vegetative plant parts are then planted in holes made on the ridges.

(e) Selection and Transplantation of Seedlings

Healthy seedlings are transplanted from the nursery to the farmland when they have grown to a height of about 5cm. transplanting means moving seedlings from the nursery to the field or farmlands.

  1. Post-planting Activities

Post-planting activities are those activities that are done after crops have been planted. The following are post-planting activities: Watering, Mulching, Thinning, Supplying, Application of Fertilizer/Manure, Weeding, Staking, Application of Pesticide, Harvesting of Mature Crops.

(a) Watering

Water is an important factor for plant growth. Plants need adequate water supply to grow well.

(b) Mulching

It is the use of organic or artificial materials to cover seed beds after crops have been planted.

(c) Thinning

Thinning means removing weak seedlings from the field.

(d) Supplying

Suppose that the two seeds planted in a hole were to die, the farmer would replace the dead seedling with a strong one.

(e) Application of Fertilizer/Manure

Fertilizers are materials that can be added to the soil to make it more fertile. Fertilizers may be organic or inorganic. Inorganic fertilizer is made from chemical elements such as Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium.

Organic fertilizer is called manure. It is gotten from the remains of dead plants and animals, cattle dung, poultry droppings and food wastes.

(f) Weeding

Weeds are unwanted crops growing on the farmland or garden. The removal of weeds from the garden or farm is what is termed weeding.

(g) Staking

Staking is done to support crops which cannot stand erect on their own.

(h) Application of Pesticide

Planted crops can be attacked by pest. These pest includes insects, birds and rodents. Pesticides are applied to get rid of pests.

(i) Harvesting of Mature Crops

A mature crop produces flowers and fruits. The fruits go on to become ripe and this is a sign that the crop is ready to be harvested.


  1. What is pre-planting activities?
  2. Mention 4 pre-planting activities.
  3. List 5 post-planting activities.
  4. What is harvesting?